The Forth Noble Truth (Lecture Note 3)

Noble Eightfold Path or Middle way or Gradual practices.
Noble Eightfold Path and Social Ethics.

It is called “Middle Way” as it is between the two extreme practices; self-indulgence and self-mortification.

Three categories
1) Generosity, morality and wisdom.
2) Morality, concentration and wisdom
3) Mindfulness, concentration and wisdom
Noble Eightfold Path is in 2nd category.

1) Right Understanding; the knowledge of the Four Noble Truths, of cause and effect etc. Understanding can gain by
a) hearing from others and
b) Thoughtful reflection. Or

a) Hearing from others
b) Reflecting properly and
c) Meditating
2) Right Thought;
the thought of renunciation, loving-kindness and non-violence. Free from greed, hatred and delusion.

3) Right speech;

a) abstaining from lying (truthfulness),
b) back-biting (social harmony),
c) harsh language (gentle words in communication) and
d) vain talks (meaningful, profitable).
(True, pleasant and profitable)

4) Right Action; Abstaining from

a) killing
b) Stealing
c) Sexual misconduct and
(Right Action guarantees the fundamental human rights of right to live, to posses and to maintain sexual relations.

5) Right Livelihood; usually five kinds of trades are mentioned to be avoided,
a) Trading in arms
b) humans
c) flesh
d) ..intoxicating drinks and
e) ..poisons.

Two professions
a) Neither harmful nor helpful/ blameless.
b) Helpful.

6) Right Effort; Four great efforts

a) To prevent the arising of unwholesome thoughts that have not yet arisen;
b) To abandon unwholesome thoughts that have already arisen;
c) To develop wholesome thoughts that have not yet arisen;
d) To maintain wholesome thoughts that have already arisen.

7) Right Mindfulness: Four kinds of mindfulness

a) Mindfulness on the body
b) ..on feelings or sensations
c) ..on mind and
d) ..mind-objects.

8) Right Concentration; the attainment of meditative absorptions. There are five hindrances that obstruct
a) Desire for sensual pleasure,
b) Ill-will
c) Sloth and torpor
d) Restlessness and worry and
e) Skeptical doubt.

a) is destroyed by one-pointedness,
b) .. by joy
c) initial application,
d) happiness
e) sustained application.

## Buddhist social ethics to be continued.##

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